BaseLearner([domain, model]) A basic learning model class.
BaseSSG([domain, model, inference, alpha, …]) Base implementation of a learner with the subgradient algorithm.
SSG([domain, model, inference, eta0, …]) Learner implementing the standard subgradient algorithm.
EG([domain, model, inference, eta0, …]) Learner implementing the Exponentiate Gradient algorithm.
StructuredPerceptron([domain, model]) A simple structured perceptron algorithm from [1]_.
BlockCoordinateFrankWolfe([domain, model, …]) Learner using the Block-Coordinate Frank-Wolfe algorithm [1]_.

This package contains several learning algorithms to be used in conjunction with Pyconstruct domains. All the learners in Pyconstruct are agnostic to the type of structured objects the data contains, thanks to the fact that the domain takes care of making inference in a generic way.

Here we use the “equations” example, available in the source code, to show how Pyconstruct learners can be used.

Learners in Pyconstruct follow the same interface as Scikit-learn estimators. Each learner needs first to be instanciated, passing a domain as argument to the constructor. For instance:

from pyconstruct import SSG, Domain

eq = Domain('equations.pmzn')
ssg = SSG(eq)

Here we used SSG, which is a learner using the stochastic subgradient method. A learner must be initialized with either a domain or an existing model containing a domain. If only a domain is passed, then the default model for the learner is used (a LinearModel in the case of SSG). If a model is also passed, it has to be compatible with the learner (LinearModel or compatible subclasses for SSG).

The constructor of the learner usually accepts other hyper-parameters of the algorithm as well. After being instantiated, the learner needs to be trained with data that is compatible with the domain passed to the learner instance. In this case, for instance, we can make use of data provided by Pyconstruct:

from pyconstruct.datasets import load_equations
equations = load_equations()

Most of the learners in Pyconstruct are online learners, i.e. they can partially fit a model a mini-batch of examples at the time. This provides high flexibility to the way models can be trained, and is indeed useful given that training a very big model on structured data may require a lot of time and computational resources. As in Scikit-learn, online learners implement the partial_fit method, which takes a mini-batch of examples and uses it to update the model. Pyconstruct has a convenient utility to separate data into mini-batches, which in turn can then be used to train the model:

from pyconstruct.utils import batches

for X_b, Y_b in batches(equations.data, equations.target, size=50):
    ssg.partial_fit(X_b, Y_b)

This method of training is very flexible because it allows to, for instance, validate the model while training:

from pyconstruct.metrics import hamming

for X_b, Y_b in batches(equations.data, equations.target, size=50):

    # Validate
    Y_pred = ssg.predict(X_b)
    loss = hamming(Y_pred, Y_b, key='sequence').mean()
    print('Training loss: {}'.format(loss))

    # Update
    ssg.partial_fit(X_b, Y_b)

Here the hamming function takes a parameter key=’sequence’ because that is the name of the attribute in the equations data that need to be compared.

Learners also implement the fit method, which divides the data in batches and the uses the partial_fit, as shown above.